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dc.contributor.author Gómez, José María
dc.contributor.author Verdú, Miguel
dc.coverage.spatial Worldwide
dc.date.accessioned 2012-01-04T19:03:45Z
dc.date.available 2012-01-04T19:03:45Z
dc.date.issued 2012-01-04
dc.identifier doi:10.5061/dryad.kh21qb76
dc.identifier.citation Gómez JM, Verdú M (2012) Mutualism with plants drives primate diversification. Systematic Biology 61(4): 567-577.
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10255/dryad.36943
dc.description Understanding the origin of diversity is a fundamental problem in biology. Evolutionary diversification has been intensely explored during the last years due to the development of molecular tools and the comparative method. However, most studies are conducted using only information from extant species. This approach probably leads to misleading conclusions, especially because of inaccuracy in the estimation of extinction rates. It is critical to integrate the information generated by extant organisms with the information obtained from the fossil record. Unfortunately, this integrative approach has been seldom performed, and thus our understanding of the factors fueling diversification is still deficient. Ecological interactions are a main factor shaping evolutionary diversification by influencing speciation and extinction rates. Most attention has focused on the effect of antagonistic interactions on evolutionary diversification. In contrast, the role of mutualistic interactions in shaping diversification has been much less explored. In this study, by combining phylogenetic, neontological and paleontological information, we show that a facultative mutualistic plant-animal interaction emerging from frugivory and seed dispersal has most likely contributed to the diversification of our own lineage, the primates. We compiled diet and seed dispersal ability in 381 extant and 556 extinct primates. Using well-established molecular phylogenies, we demonstrated that mutualistic extant primates had higher speciation rates, lower extinction rates and thereby higher diversification rates than non-mutualistic ones. Similarly, mutualistic fossil primates had higher geological durations and smaller per capita rates of extinction than non-mutualistic ones. As a mechanism underlying this pattern, we found that mutualistic extinct and extant primates have significantly larger geographic ranges, which promotes diversification by hampering extinction and increasing geographic speciation. All these outcomes together strongly suggest that the establishment of a facultative mutualism with plants has greatly benefited primate evolution and fueled its taxonomic diversification.
dc.relation.haspart doi:10.5061/dryad.kh21qb76/1
dc.relation.haspart doi:10.5061/dryad.kh21qb76/2
dc.relation.haspart doi:10.5061/dryad.kh21qb76/3
dc.relation.haspart doi:10.5061/dryad.kh21qb76/4
dc.relation.haspart doi:10.5061/dryad.kh21qb76/5
dc.relation.haspart doi:10.5061/dryad.kh21qb76/6
dc.relation.haspart doi:10.5061/dryad.kh21qb76/7
dc.relation.haspart doi:10.5061/dryad.kh21qb76/8
dc.relation.haspart doi:10.5061/dryad.kh21qb76/9
dc.relation.isreferencedby doi:10.1093/sysbio/syr127
dc.relation.isreferencedby PMID:22228798
dc.subject Fossil
dc.subject Extinction
dc.subject Mutualism
dc.subject Speciation
dc.subject Molecular Phylogeny
dc.subject Primates
dc.subject Ecological interactions
dc.title Data from: Mutualism with plants drives primate diversification
dc.type Article
dwc.ScientificName Primates
dc.contributor.correspondingAuthor Gómez, José María
prism.publicationName Systematic Biology

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Title Figure S1
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Description Saturared structural equation models for data using both extant (A) and extinct (B) primates
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Title Figure S2
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Description Ecological role evolution along the Cenozoic. (A) Temporal change in the proportion of fossil primates being antagonistic or mutualistic. (B) Temporal change in the proportion of fossil primates with different diet during the Cenozoic period. The proportion of primates belonging to each ecological role or diet category is found at each time as the vertical width of the region covered by it. As observed, the proportion of mutualistic primates was gradullay increasing throughout Cenozoic period.
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Title Figure S3
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Description Ecological role and species duration (A) Temporal duration of mutualistic and antagonistic fossil primates, quantified as the stratigraphic range in Ma. (B) Temporal duration of extinct primate genera belonging to different diet. As observed in the figure, primates belonging to different diet categories had different temporal duration. However, this difference was exclusively due to a longer duration of frugivorous primates consuming fleshy fruits and putatively behaving as seed dispersers and to a shorter duration of frugivorous primates consuming mostly seeds and hard fruits and behaving as antagonistics. When comparing only within frugivores, the stratigraphic range of antagonistic primates was significantly smaller than that of mutualistic ones. In contrast, the temporal duration of faunivorous, nectarivorous/gumnivorous and folivorous primates was statistically identical. The SEs of the reported averages are shown as error bars.
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Title Figure S4
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Description Relationship between diet category and geographic range of extant primates.
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Title Figure S5
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Title Figure S6
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Description Relationship between body mass (in log kg) and geological age (in Ma) (N= 184 species) of fossil primate genera.
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Title Appendix S1_Living Primates Diet
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Description Living Primates Diet
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Title Appendix S2_Fossil Primates Diet
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Description Fossil Primates Diet
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Title Primates Diversification_supporting information 2nd
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